The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the level of the connective tissue attachment in sites with infrabony pockets. The experiment was carried out in four beagle dogs. The second and fourth premolars were extracted. After healing, angular bony defects were prepared at the mesial aspect of the third premolars. The exposed root surface was scaled and planed, and a notch was prepared at the bottom of the defect. Plaque-collecting cotton floss ligatures were placed around the neck of the teeth and maintained in situ for 3 weeks, followed by an additional 2 months of plaque accumulation before the orthodontic tooth movement was initiated. In each dog, one premolar was moved away from the angular bony defect and one premolar into and through the angular bony defect. The maxillary third premolars served as control teeth and were not subjected to orthodontic tooth movement. After orthodontic treatment (5 to 6 months), the teeth were stabilized for a period of 2 months before biopsy sampling. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic evaluations revealed that is was possible to establish and maintain an infrabony pocket with a subcrestal, plaque-induced inflammatory lesion during the entire course of the study. While the control teeth had maintained their attachment levels, all but one of the orthodontically moved teeth showed additional loss of attachment. It was concluded that orthodontic therapy involving bodily tooth movement may enhance the rate of destruction of the connective tissue attachment at teeth with inflamed, infrabony pockets and that the risk for additional attachment loss is particularly evident when the tooth is moved into the infrabony pocket.