Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension, accounting for 10% of all hypertension. Far from being benign, hypertension due to PA is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, PA is still underdiagnosed in general practice. Recent reports strongly recommend that identifying patients with PA is cost-beneficial based on improved cardiovascular outcomes afforded by specific surgical and medical treatment. This review provides an update of PA including controversial aspects of diagnosis and treatment.