Abstract This paper reviews the energy supply and supply prospects in developing countries, with particular emphasis on Egypt and Sudan in northern Africa, and Bangladesh, Indonesia, Jordan, Pakistan, Syrian A.R. and Yemen A.R. in southwest Asia. Existing energy supply patterns are described for both commercial and traditional energy sources. Particular reference is made to the disatrous consequences of increasing fuel wood demand. The potential for energy demand management and efficiency improvements is discussed and several specific measures are suggested. The prospects for energy supply are discussed in the context of several specific isues: the availability and price of commercial fuels, interfuel substitution options, future trends for traditional fuels, implications of the shift from traditional to commercial fuels and implications of the commercialization of traditional fuels.