Abstract Taking into account the perimembrane localization of caldesmon [(1986) Nature 319, 68] and its ability to participate in the regulation of receptor clusterization [(1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 496], we studied the interaction of duck gizzard caldesmon with soybean phospholipids (azolectin). By using four independent methods, i.e. light scattering, gel-electrophoresis, gel-filtration and ultracentrifugation, we showed a Ca-independent complex formation between caldesmon and azolectin. Interacting with caldesmon, calmodulin is shown to dissociate the caldesmon-azolectin complex. It is supposed that the caldesmon-phospholipid interaction may affect caldesmon phosphorylation by Ca-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase. This effect may be important for various cell motility processes.