Abstract The ability to selectively measure serine enantiomer concentrations in rat brain microdialysate is essential during drug discovery to study the interaction of d-serine with the N-methyl- d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor. NMDA receptor-stimulating agents, such as d-serine, have been shown to reduce the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia when added to conventional or atypical antipsychotic drug regimens. In the work presented here, an LC/MS/MS assay was developed and validated to simultaneously measure d-serine and l-serine concentrations in rat brain microdialysate. Reverse phase chromatographic resolution of the enantiomers was obtained through derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl-5- l-alanine amide (Marfey's reagent). The assay was validated to determine concentrations over the range of 10–7500 ng/mL using electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Both intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were less than 16.5% (RE) and 7% (CV) for both analytes, respectively, and assay throughput was increased significantly relative to existing methodologies.