Abstract Cartilaginous differentiation is rarely encountered in myxoid liposarcomas. To date, a small number of such cases have been described, and molecular or cytogenetic analysis was performed only in few of them. In the present study, we describe a primary myxoid liposarcoma with cartilaginous differentiation which arised in the left thigh of a 37-year-old man. Miscroscopically, the tumor consisted of areas with typical myxoid liposarcoma morphology and areas of sharply demarcated hyaline cartilage nodules. Here, we present the results of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis that revealed the presence of FUS and DDIT3 gene rearrangements in both the liposarcomatous and cartilaginous components of the tumor. These findings confirm the neoplastic nature of the cartilage component in this rare tumor.