Enforcement is a crucial final step in any policy process, including environmental policies. Ideally policy formulation is subsequently implemented and enforced. Enforcement is needed to make sure that the envisioned effects are realized in the end. The questions we put forward in this paper are what the meaning of enforcement is; how enforcement can be put on the political and administrative agenda; what difficulties are to be countered when strengthening enforcement at the local level. We build upon two studies. One is an evaluation of a national action program on enforcement. The other one is a study on a municipal strategy on enforcement. Strengthening enforcement practices is however an uphill battle. It needs to be implemented within current organizational and political structures and it needs constant attention. In the end, a combination of structural and cultural measures will most likely be most effective.