Background/Aims The acquisition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection following organ transplantation from donors with occult HBV infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of occult HBV in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation donors. Methods We performed a retrospective study on 124 consecutive hepatitis B surface antigen negative HSC donors. Their serum samples were analyzed by PCR for the pre-S/S, pre-core/core and X regions of the virus. Samples reactive by at least two PCR assays were considered HBV-DNA positive. Results Nineteen of the 124 HSC donors (15.3%) had occult HBV infection. Sixteen of these 19 donors with occult HBV infection (84.2%) tested positive for hepatitis B core antibody while 78 of 105 subjects (74.3%) without occult HBV infection were also positive ( P=0.56). Fourteen of the 19 donors (73.7%) with occult HBV infection tested positive for hepatitis B surface antibody while 67 of the 105 subjects without occult HBV infection were also positive ( P=0.45). Conclusions The prevalence of occult HBV infection among HSC donors in Hong Kong is high. Anti-HBc and anti-HBs status had no significant correlation with the presence of occult HBV infection.