The dioecious plant Silene latifolia has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and comparison of the positions of sex-linked genes indicates that at least three large inversions have occurred during the evolution of the Y chromosome. In this article, we describe the isolation of a new sex-linked gene from S. latifolia, which provides new information on the evolution of this plant’s young sex chromosomes. By using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction degenerate primers based on the Arabidopsis thaliana sequence of WUSCHEL, a flower-development gene, we found two copies in S. latifolia, which we named SlWUS1 and SlWUS2. Southern blot and genetic segregation analysis showed that SlWUS1 is located on the X chromosome and SlWUS2 is autosomal. No Y-linked copy of SlWUS1 was found by either Southern blot analysis under low-stringency conditions or polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers, so we conclude that SlWUS1 probably has no Y-linked homolog. It is unknown whether the Y chromosome lost the SlWUS1 copy by degeneration of this individual gene or whether deletion of a larger genome region was involved. Several tests lead us to conclude that dosage compensation has not evolved for this sex-linked gene. We mapped the ortholog in the nondioecious relative S. vulgaris (SvWUS1), to compare the location in a species that has no history of having sex chromosomes. SvWUS1 maps to the same linkage group as other fully X-linked genes, indicating that it was not added to the X, but was lost from the Y. Its location differs in the maps from the two species, raising the possibility that the X chromosome, as well as the Y, may have been rearranged.