Chlamydia trachomatis was sought at first and subsequent clinic visits in urethral swabs and urines from 112 heterosexual men with acute non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). In comparison with a urethral swab tested by Micro Trak (MT), a urine deposit tested in the same way was 90% as sensitive. Examining a urine deposit by the enzyme immunoassay IDEIA was a little less sensitive (89%) than examining a similar deposit by MT, and was less sensitive (82%) than examining a urethral swab by MT. The results of testing urines were little influenced by collecting them either before or after swabbing the urethra, and there was evidence that examining all of a urine sample by IDEIA would have increased sensitivity. Overall, 55 (49%) of the men were diagnosed as C trachomatis-positive based on the results of testing both a urethral swab and a urine sample. Furthermore, a small numbers of chlamydiae were detected by examining urine by MT and, to a lesser extent, by IDEIA, so that there is no reason why this non-invasive approach should not be successful in men other than those with acute NGU.