Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation is a real option to preserve and restore fertility in young cancer patients. However, there is a concern regarding the possible presence of malignant cells in the ovarian tissue, which could lead to recurrence of the primary disease after reimplantation. A review of the existing literature was done to evaluate the risk of transplanting malignant cells in case of the main malignant indications for ovarian tissue cryopreservation. For ovarian tissue from patients with hematologic malignancies, it is of paramount importance to identify minimal residual disease before ovarian tissue transplantation. Indeed, these pathologies, reviewed here in detail, are considered to be most at risk of ovarian metastasis.