This chapter examines mothers’ experiences of the PPL scheme during its early operation. Its focus is on immediate outcomes of the scheme. It begins by considering overall take-up patterns, focusing on the number of mothers who have taken PLP and comparing these mothers with mothers who were likely to be eligible for PLP, but who chose the BB instead. The chapter then considers the experiences of mothers, beginning with their awareness and knowledge of the PPL scheme. It then moves on to consider how they decided between PLP and the BB, their experiences in applying for and receiving PLP payments, their experiences and use of KIT days, and their use of employer-provided forms of leave around the birth of their babies. The chapter outlines the results of a small study of fathers who took some or all of the PLP payments associated with the birth of their child. The results outlined in this chapter are based on the Mothers Process Evaluation Study (MoPE) which involves a survey of 901 families with birth in July or August 2011, including 800 mothers who were eligible for PLP and had taken or were approved to take PLP. It also includes 101 mothers who were likely to be eligible for PLP but had applied for the Baby Bonus (BB). These mothers were selected from a total of 588 randomly selected BB recipients. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with a subsample of 90 mothers and 7 fathers. Surveys and interviews were conducted between October and November 2011.