Background In co-cultures of pachytene spermatocytes with Sertoli cells, β-NGF regulates the second meiotic division by blocking secondary spermatocytes in metaphase (metaphase II), and thereby lowers round spermatid formation. In vertebrates, mature oocytes are arrested at metaphase II until fertilization, because of the presence of cytostatic factor (CSF) in their cytoplasm. By analogy, we hypothesized the presence of CSF in male germ cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We show here, that Mos, Emi2, cyclin E and Cdk2, the four proteins of CSF, and their respective mRNAs, are present in male rat meiotic cells; this was assessed by using Western blotting, immunocytochemistry and reverse transcriptase PCR. We measured the relative cellular levels of Mos, Emi2, Cyclin E and Cdk2 in the meiotic cells by flow cytometry and found that the four proteins increased throughout the first meiotic prophase, reaching their highest levels in middle to late pachytene spermatocytes, then decreased following the meiotic divisions. In co-cultures of pachytene spermatocytes with Sertoli cells, β-NGF increased the number of metaphases II, while enhancing Mos and Emi2 levels in middle to late pachytene spermatocytes, pachytene spermatocytes in division and secondary spermatocytes. Conclusion/Significance Our results suggest that CSF is not restricted to the oocyte. In addition, they reinforce the view that NGF, by enhancing Mos in late spermatocytes, is one of the intra-testicular factors which adjusts the number of round spermatids that can be supported by Sertoli cells.