This study examined the supply of and demand for married female labor in the southern United States. Special attention was given to differences in labor force participation, labor supply, and quantities of labor supplied and demanded across rural and urban areas. Once state effects were accounted for, decisions to change participation were found not to vary by urban-rural designation. Differences in demand were fully captured by an intercept shifter and the variations in hours supplied by married females between urban and rural areas. Labor supply varied greatly with the effects of key determinants (number of children, work force experience, family income) being strongly different in rural areas. Different policies are needed to promote female labor supply in rural areas as opposed to urban areas.