This article starts from the presumption of immeasurable spiritual and material wealth that the Church, through its activities, has brought and built in the educational processes in the past. As opposed to a certain ideology of neutrality of education and a neglect for upbringing in society (based on forgetfulness of the anthropological determinants), the article emphasises the internal dynamics of Christian values which is present in every historical era, including the contemporary one. Christianity, with its theological (primarily Christological) specificity remains a challenge to society because it interprets the question about meaning and significance at the level of anthropology and culture that, unavoidably, had and continues to have impact on society. Based on the claims of R. Spaeman and P. Donati and in relation to upbringing and education in Europe, the author shows why is the Christian approach to myth, cult, ethics and other elements of formation (such as the value of revelation, memory and experience) interesting. In this effort, the author keeps in mind that Christianity has a particular approach to the relationship between the sources of knowledge (faith and reason), as well as the sources of agency (freedom and love). All this has been and continues to be vitally reflected in the European culture and its notion of organisation of life in society over which the eschatological dimension continues to exert formidable influence. On the basis of historical constants, the author attempts to find possible connections with today's questions in upbringing and education. Amongst these, he finds the imperatives of anthropological foundations (and their theological basis) to be most significant in the European context which is sliding toward a system built on the aforementioned neutrality and in-difference (a difference that does not differ).