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Defascizarea Universităţii „Regele Ferdinand I” din Cluj (1944-1946): Epurările şi comprimările corpului didactic

Authors
Publisher
MISC
Publication Date
Keywords
  • Geschichte
  • Bildung Und Erziehung
  • History
  • Education
  • University Of Cluj
  • Allgemeine Geschichte
  • Bildungswesen Tertiärer Bereich
  • General History
  • University Education
  • Kommunismus
  • Faschismus
  • Propaganda
  • Politische Verfolgung
  • Repression
  • Rumänien
  • Politisierung
  • Hochschullehrer
  • Universität
  • Communism
  • Fascism
  • Propaganda
  • Political Persecution
  • Repression
  • Romania
  • Politicization
  • University Teacher
  • University
  • 10600
  • 30300
  • 10500
Disciplines
  • Education
  • Political Science

Abstract

The last years of World War II have brought, per ensemble, complex problems for the “Regele Ferdinand I” University, which, after the Vienna Treaty of 1940, has been functioning in exile from Sibiu and Timişoara. From 1944 the model of the modern University of Cluj was brutally converted to an instrument of propaganda for a communist ideology, far fetched from its original nationalistic vocation. The period of transition from democracy to totalitarianism, 1944-1947, was marked by a series of events such as: the beginning of the process of politicization within the University of Cluj, the problems related to the foundation of “Bolyai” University, the return in 1945 of the University to its original sight from Cluj, the students strikes in January-June 1946, the university repression generally speaking, and particularly the repressions of students, and, last but not least, the debates of the University Senate concerning the politicization of the academic environment and the dismissal of some “compromised” members of the teaching staff. After 1944, the communists were interested in eliminating all political rivals, therefore the dismissal threats, followed by the contractions within the Departments of the University of Cluj, became a cruel reality between 1944-1948. Like all the other Romanian universities, the Cluj University began compiling “expurgation” dossiers for the so called “fascist” university professors, and substituting the old rectors and deans with new ones from amongst those who had adapted to the “new age”. The public stand of the academics has gradually declined after 1944, when their life and activity has been brought to challenge, the changing values after March 1945 favouring the devotion towards the new regime, and praising less and less the academic fulfilment. On the background of “democratic” reforms, the new regime authorities have intensified the brutal isolation, especially of scholars among which a great number of university professors, by means of massive arrests. The most invoked reasons were: denigration of the power of the state, opposition to the construction of socialism, or the need to re-educate the “hostile” elements from within the Popular Republic of Romania.

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