During periods of endemic meningococcal disease, serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis is responsible for a significant percentage of invasive diseases, and no particular clone or strain predominates (F. E. Ashton and D. A. Caugant, Can. J. Microbiol. 47: 293-289, 2001), However, in the winter of 2004 to 2005, a cluster of serogroup B meningococcal disease occurred in one region in the province of Québec, Canada. The N. meningitidis strain responsible for this cluster of cases was identified as sequence type ST-269 with the antigenic formula B:17:P1.19. Retrospective analysis of isolates from 2000 onwards showed that this clone first emerged in the province of Québec in 2003. The emergence of this clone of serogroup B meningococci occurred after a mass vaccination against serogroup C N. meningitidis, suggesting possible capsule replacement.