In September 2003, JSI/DELIVER conducted an assessment of the logistics system capacity and individual site readiness to provide PMTCT services and to initiate ART at selected public sector health facilities in Tanzania. The purpose of the assessment was to support government expansion of PMTCT from five pilot sites to 28 health facilities in five regions by addressing the logistics system constraints to ensuring a reliable and uninterrupted supply of the broad range of commodities required for PMTCT and ART, and by conducting an evaluation of the overall readiness of each site to provide these services. Several private providers, nongovernmental and faith-based organizations, and employer-based programs were included in the assessment to learn about PMTCT and ART in these sectors and to identify opportunities for public/private sector collaboration in expanding service delivery and ensuring effective commodity distribution. In addition, interviews with pharmaceutical company representatives and visits to retail pharmacies provided an overview of current commercial sector distribution of ARV drugs in Tanzania. The main findings showed an urgent need to build logistics management capacity within the central level MOH to—Coordinate multiple sources of rapidly increasing funding for commodity procurement. Strengthen commodity-forecasting capacity. Align procurement cycles and supplier lead times with the in-country supply pipeline and demand for services. At the facility level, assessment findings showed that individual site readiness is heavily constrained by the availability and quality of human resources; laboratory infrastructure and capacity; and lack of an established inventory control system and standardized pharmacy management procedures.