The object of this study was to ascertain the effect of teacher's cognitions of human relations (status structure etc.) within the classroom upon pupils' adjustments (attitudes toward the teacher, the classmates, and the school). The subjects were ten teachers and their pupils (328). The following conclusions are warranted by the results : (1) The degree of accuracy of the teacher's cognitions of human relations within the classroom varies from one teacher to another. (2) The difference of such teacher's cognitions may bring about significant differences in pupils' adjustments.