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A three-dimensional evaluation of human facial asymmetry.

Publication Date
  • Research Article
  • Physics


Soft-tissue facial asymmetry was studied in a group of 80 young healthy white Caucasian adults (40 men, 40 women) with no craniofacial, dental or mandibular disorders. For each subject, the 3-dimensional coordinates of 16 standardised soft-tissue facial landmarks (trichion, nasion, pronasale, subnasale, B point, pogonion, eye lateral canthi, nasal alae, labial commissures, tragi, gonia) were measured by infrared photogrammetry by an automated instrument. The form of the right and left hemifaces was assessed by calculating all the possible linear distances between pairs of landmarks within side. Side differences were tested by using euclidean distance matrix analysis. The mean faces of both groups were significantly asymmetric, i.e. the 2 sides of face showed significant differences in shape, but no differences in size.

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