Summary Introduction Tuberculous meningitis and brain tuberculomas are currently rare in the western world but remain serious. Improved outcome requires early recognition and treatment of these conditions. State of art Treatment is usually begun before diagnostic confirmation. Therapeutic principles are now better defined thanks to recent recommendations and studies. Antituberculous therapy begins with two months of a combination of four drugs: isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamid. Then follows a longer phase of bitherapy with isoniazid and rifampicin, lasting at least four months but usually extended to seven or ten months as a precaution. Patients at risk of toxic neuropathy should receive pyridoxine supplementation. Corticosteroids must be systematically added during the first eight weeks of treatment, beginning with high dose before progressive tapering. Hyponatremia is common, often induced by emesis and cerebral salt wasting syndrome. Therefore saline supply rather than water restriction is required. Non-obstructive hydrocephaly can usually be managed with diuretic therapy including acetazolamid, sometimes complemented by serial lumbar punctures. Neurosurgical interventions are rarely needed. Monitoring of treatment tolerance and efficacy is mainly clinical. Central nervous system imaging and cerebro-spinal fluid analysis are only required to explain clinical deterioration. Conclusion With adequate and prompt anti-tuberculous, anti-inflammatory and supportive treatment, the prognosis of central nervous system tuberculosis can be greatly improved.