Hydrothermal reactions between uranium salts and arsenic pentoxide in the presence of two different amines yielded six new uranium arsenate phases exhibiting open-framework structures, ethylenediamine (en): [C2N2H9]-[(UO2)(ASO(4))] I; [C2N2H10][(UO2)F(HASO(4))]2 center dot 4H(2)O, II; [C2N2H9][U2F5(HASO(4))(2)], III; [C2N2H9][UF2(ASO(4))], IV; diethylenetriamine (DETA), [C4N3H16][U2F3(ASO(4))(2)(HAsO4)] V; and [C4N3H16][U2F6(AsO4)(HAsO4)], VI. The structures were determined using single crystal studies, which revealed two- (I, II, V) and three-dimensional (III, IV, VI) structures for the uranium arsenates. The uranium atom, in these compounds, exhibits considerable variations in the coordination (6 to 9) that appears to have some correlation with the synthetic conditions. The water molecules in [C2N2H10][(UO2)F(HAsO4)](2 center dot)4H(2)O, II, could be reversibly removed, and the dehydrated phase, [C2N2H10][(UO2)F(HAsO4)](2), IIa, was also characterized using single crystal studies. The observation of many mineralogical structures in the present compounds suggests that the hydrothermal method could successfully replicate the geothermal conditions. As part of this study, we have observed autunite, Ca[(UO2)(PO4)](2)(H2O)(11), metavauxite, [Fe(H2O)(6)][Al(OH)(H2O)(PO4)](2), finarite, PbCU(SO4)(OH)(2), and tancoite, LiNa2H[Al(PO4)(2)(OH)], structures. The repeated observation of the secondary building unit, SBU-4, in many of the uranium arsenate structures suggests that these are viable building units. Optical studies on the uranium arsenate compound, [C4N3H16][U2F6(AsO4)(HASO(4))), VI, containing uranium in the +4 oxidation state indicates a blue emission through an upconversion process. The compound also exhibits antiferromagnetic behavior.