Abstract Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been identified as the etiologic agent which causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in swine farms in the world. Some quantitative proteomic studies showed that many proteins significantly changed in PCV2-infected cells. To explore the role of cellular chaperones during PCV2 infection, cytoprotective chaperone Hsp27 was analyzed in PCV2-infected PK-15 cells in this study. The results showed that Hsp27 could up-regulate and accumulate in phosphorylated forms in the nuclear zone during PCV2 replication. Suppression of Hsp27 phosphorylation with specific chemical inhibitors or downregulation of all forms of Hsp27 via RNA interference significantly reduced the virus replication. Meanwhile, over-expression of Hsp27 enhanced PCV2 genome replication and virion production. It indicated that Hsp27 was required for PCV2 production in PK-15 cells culture. It should be helpful for understanding the mechanism of replication and pathogenesis of PCV2 and development of novel antiviral therapies in the future.