Structural genomics (SG) programs have developed during the last decade many novel methodologies for faster and more accurate structure determination. These new tools and approaches led to the determination of thousands of protein structures. The generation of enormous amounts of experimental data resulted in significant improvements in the understanding of many biological processes at molecular levels. However, the amount of data collected so far is so large that traditional analysis methods are limiting the rate of extraction of biological and biochemical information from 3D models. This situation has prompted us to review the challenges that remain unmet by SG, as well as the areas in which the potential impact of SG could exceed what has been achieved so far.