Abstract Alendronate sodium is a medicine, which is commonly used in osteoporosis treatment. Nowadays, this substance is given to patients in tablets, but in future it is planned that it will be administrated into human organisms as intravenous infusions; therefore, significant interactions of this medicine with erythrocytes will be inevitable. It is the reason why we decided to investigate the interaction of alendronate sodium with human erythrocytes. The effect of this medicine on acetylcholinesterase activity, lipid and protein peroxidation, as well as cellular thiol content was examined. Moreover, the effect of alendronate sodium on alterations in erythrocytes morphology was assessed. Human erythrocytes were incubated with alendronate sodium in the concentrations ranging from 0.33 to 100 μM for 1 h and 24 h. No changes have been observed in the parameters examined after 1 h of incubation of the erythrocytes with this medicine excluding the carbonyl groups level. Moreover, no alterations in the activity of acetylcholinesterase, the level of thiols as well as in morphology of the erythrocytes incubated with alendronate sodium for 24 h have been observed. It was also proven that alendronate sodium increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but only after 24 h of incubation. We have not observed any severe changes in cells studied even at the highest dose of bisphosphonates examined, thus their usage should not be dangerous for the erythrocytes of people treated with these medicines.