Abstract Following the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity more than 100 years ago, the need for protection against very low doses of ionizing radiation and especially different levels of natural radiation is still among the most controversial matters in radiobiology and radiation protection. According to formal reports, some areas in Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, are the inhabited areas with the highest levels of natural radiation studied so far. The people who live in these areas are usually unaware of the high levels of natural radiation in their environment. Studies performed on the residents of these areas have indicated that the effective dose of the inhabitants, in some cases, is much higher than the dose limits for occupational irradiation. Considering the new policy of ICRP regarding suggesting dose limits for exposure to natural radiation and the concentration of radon, it seems that warning the inhabitants is a must. On the other hand, considering the experiences in other countries and especially evacuation of the residents of contaminated areas after the Chernobyl accident, and according to ICRP, setting any radiation protection regulation for the inhabitants without considering social, economic, and psychological factors would waste the resources and cause harsh events. In this paper, the need for considering social, economic, and psychological factors in warning the general public from the possible risks due to residing in areas with above the normal levels of natural radioactivity in Ramsar, Iran, is discussed.