The new fields of behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology investigate the outcome of specific toxic exposures in humans and animals on learning, memory, and behavioral characteristics. Three important classes of behavioral neurotoxicants are metals, solvents, and pesticides. The clearest data on the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to toxicants comes from the study of two metals, lead and mercury, and from epidemiological investigations of the effects of alcohol taken during pregnancy. Less complete data are available for two other groups of agents, solvents and pesticides. What we do know about their effects on the fetal brain is convincing enough to make us demand caution in their distribution.