The Neotropical ambrosia beetle genus Camptocerus Dejean was revised. Monophyly of the genus was tested using 66 morphological characters in a cladistic analysis. Camptocerus was recovered as monophyletic and 31 species were recognized. Six new synonyms were discovered: C. auricomus Blandford 1896 (= C. striatulus Hagedorn 1905), C. inoblitus (Schedl) 1939 (= C. morio (Schedl) 1952), C. niger (Fabricius) 1801 (= C. tectus Eggers 1943), C. opacicollis (Eggers) 1929 (= C. infidelis Wood 1969; = C. uniseriatus Schedl 1972), C. suturalis (Fabricius) 1801 (= C. cinctus Chapuis 1869). Two species were removed from synonymy: C. charpentierae Schedl and C. hirtipennis Schedl. Twelve new species of Camptocerus were described: C. coccoformus (Brazil, Ecuador), C. distinctus (Ecuador), C. doleae (Ecuador), C. igniculus (Brazil), C. mallopterus (Ecuador), C. noel (widely distributed across Amazonia), C. petrovi (Ecuador), C. pilifrons (Ecuador), C. pseudoangustior (widely distributed across Amazonia), C. satyrus (Brazil), C. unicornus (Brazil) and C. zucca (Ecuador). Lectotypes are here designated for the following species: Camptocerus auricomus Blandford, Camptocerus squammiger Chapuis, Hylesinus gibbus Fabricius, Hylesinus suturalis Fabricius, Hylesinus fasciatus Fabricius. A key, diagnosis, distribution, host records and images were provided for each species.