Abstract A novel cell surface marker of fetal development was identified in both in vivo and in vitro systems of the mouse using monoclonal antibodies against a glycoprotein of an apparent size of 133,000 Da. Two independent clones of hybridomas were isolated by fusing murine myeloma cells, NS-1, with spleen cells of a rat which was immunized with murine 3T3 fibroblast. The analysis of molecular size and tryptic peptides of the immunoprecipitate indicated that fibroblast and putative parietal endoderm cells, which were derived by induced differentiation of F9 embryonal carcinoma cells with retinoic acid and cyclic AMP, expressed apparently the same protein. Undifferentiated F9 cells and F9 cells which were treated with retinoic acid or cyclic AMP alone had little or no immunoprecipitable proteins. Analogously, parietal endoderm of in vivo embryos tested positive for this protein but visceral endoderm and embryonic ectoderm did not. The amount of this surface protein was increased in fibroblast and differentiated F9 cells by elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations. These results are consonant with a hypothesis that this surface protein plays a role in fetal development via a quantitative modulation by cyclic AMP.