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Correlation of regional cerebral amyloid load in Alzheimer's disease, measured with [11C]-PIB PET using spectral analysis and tissue uptake ratios, with performance on recognition memory tests.

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© 2006 Nature Publishing Group Flagellar motility is required for the viability of the bloodstream trypanosome Richard Broadhead1*, Helen R. Dawe2*, Helen Farr2*, Samantha Griffiths2*, Sarah R. Hart3*, Neil Portman2*, Michael K. Shaw2, Michael L. Ginger2, Simon J. Gaskell3, Paul G. McKean1 & Keith Gull2 The 912 microtubule axoneme of flagella and cilia represents one of the most iconic structures built by eukaryotic cells and organ- isms. Both unity and diversity are present among cilia and flagella on the evolutionary as well as the developmental scale. Some cilia are motile, whereas others function as sensory organelles and can variously possess 912 and 910 axonemes and other associated structures1. How such unity and diversity are reflected in molecu- lar repertoires is unclear. The flagellated protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, causing devastating disease in humans and other animals2. There is little hope of a vaccine for African sleeping sickness and a desperate need for modern drug therapies3. Here we present a detailed proteomic analysis of the trypanosome flagellum. RNA inter- ference (RNAi)-based interrogation of this proteome provides functional insights into human ciliary diseases and establishes that flagellar function is essential to the bloodstream-form try- panosome. We show that RNAi-mediated ablation of various proteins identified in the trypanosome flagellar proteome leads to a rapid and marked failure of cytokinesis in bloodstream-form (but not procyclic insect-form) trypanosomes, suggesting that impairment of flagellar function may provide a method of disease control. A postgenomic meta-analysis, comparing the evolutiona- rily ancient trypanosome with other eukaryotes including humans, identifies numerous trypanosome-specific flagellar proteins, suggesting new avenues for selective intervention. Flagellum-mediated migration between the gut and salivary glands of its tsetse fly vector is essential for progression of the trypanos

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