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Limitations of stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) techniques in cardiac applications.

Publication Date
DOI: 10.1002/mrm.1910340113
  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Coronary Circulation
  • Heart/Anatomy & Histology
  • Heart/Physiology
  • Humans
  • Image Processing
  • Computer-Assisted
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Methods
  • Models
  • Cardiovascular
  • Models
  • Structural
  • Myocardial Contraction
  • Signal Processing
  • Computer-Assisted


Stimulated echoes are widely used for imaging functional tissue parameters such as diffusion coefficient, perfusion, and flow rates. They are potentially interesting for the assessment of various cardiac functions. However, severe limitations of the stimulated echo acquisition mode occur, which are related to the special dynamic properties of the beating heart and flowing blood. To the well-known signal decay due to longitudinal relaxation and through-plane motion between the preparation and the read-out period of the stimulated echoes, additional signal loss is often observed. As the prepared magnetization is fixed with respect to the tissue, this signal loss is caused by the tissue deformation during the cardiac cycle, which leads to a modification of the modulation frequency of the magnetization. These effects are theoretically derived and corroborated by phantom and in vivo experiments.

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