Abstract Self-induced water intoxication (SIWI) patients present with various neurological and non-neurological symptoms. However, it is reported that non-neurological manifestations such as rhabdomyolysis are comparatively rare. The mechanism underlying rhabdomyolysis remains controversial. To investigate this further, we evaluated 22 SIWI patients for rhabdomyolysis. We reviewed the records of 22 patients with SIWI and evaluated their clinical characteristics. These patients were divided into the following two groups: Group A with rhabdomyolysis and Group B without it. We compared these groups to study the risk factors underlying the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis. Furthermore, we compared the complications and the duration of hospitalization between the two groups. The maximum serum sodium correction speed per hour, the increase in the serum sodium level in the initial 24 h, and the duration of hospitalization for group A were faster, higher, and longer, respectively, when compared with those in group B. Only group A patients showed complications. The rapid correction of hyponatremia may possibly trigger rhabdomyolysis in SIWI patients.