Sporadic high mortalities were reported among larval French scallops (Pecten maximus). Electron microscopy of moribund larvae revealed particles with the characteristics of a herpesvirus in association with cellular lesions. PCR and DNA sequencing showed that the virus is a variant of ostreid herpesvirus-1 that has already been described in clams and oysters. This is the first description of a herpesvirus infection of a scallop species. The virus was transmitted successfully from an extract of infected scallop larvae to uninfected scallop or oyster (Crassostrea, gigas) larvae, demonstrating that it is able to infect both species. Detection of viral DNA in asymptomatic adult scallops by in situ hybridisation indicates that the herpesvirus may have been transmitted from adults to larvae. It is notable that, unlike most herpesviruses, this virus has a wide host range reflected by its ability to infect several species of marine bivalve.