Abstract INTRODUCTION Infectious mononucleosis is common among young adults and teenagers. However, spontaneous rupture of spleen secondary to IM is rare and it is the most frequent cause of death in infectious mononucleosis. PRESENTATION OF CASE A previously healthy 16-year-old girl presented with a one-week history of sore throat, non-productive cough, fever, malaise and a positive Monospot test. Prior to transfer to the hospital, she had two syncopal episodes and a complaint of abdominal pain at home. Clinical examination revealed that she was febrile and mildly tachycardic with an evidence of localised peritonism on her left upper quadrant. Urgent abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan showed subcapsular haematoma with a significant amount of complex fluid within the abdominal cavity, especially the left flank. Emergency laparotomy was performed and a moderate amount of haemoperitoneum was evacuated. The spleen was found grossly enlarged with a haematoma identified on the ruptured capsule. Splenectomy was performed and peritoneal cavity was washed out meticulously prior to the closure of the abdominal wall. DISCUSSION Despite the fact that infectious mononucleosis is a self-limiting disease, it may cause serious and lethal complications. The best treatment of splenic rupture secondary to infectious mononucleosis has been controversial but it is mainly based on the haemodynamical status of the patient and the experience of the treating surgeon. CONCLUSION Spontaneous rupture of spleen secondary to IM can be lethal in those patients with high possibility of deterioration with conservative management, thus timely surgical intervention is required.