Abstract There is no single effective means of assessing arteriovenous access function, although monitoring hemodialysis venous pressure (VP) or measuring access recirculation may be of some benefit. The present study assesses prospectively the efficacy of following the peak systolic velocity (PSV) as a single measure to detect arteriovenous graft (AVG) stenosis. PSV was measured in 12 patients after new AVG placement and at approximately 2-month intervals. Angiography was also performed after new graft placement and when PSV was elevated to greater than 200 cm/sec, hemodialysis access VP increased to greater than 150 mm Hg on three consecutive readings, or access recirculation increased to greater than 11%. PSV was then compared with results from angiography, VP monitoring, and access recirculation. The 12 patients underwent 34 PSV studies, followed by angiography on 25 occasions. Each patient underwent at least one angiogram. Each abnormal PSV value was confirmed with the finding of stenosis on angiogram, except for two patients with PSVs greater than 400 cm/sec and normal angiography results. VP and recirculation were not elevated. During this period, two patients developed thrombosis of the AVG, and two patients underwent angioplasty with improvement in PSV. We conclude that elevations in PSV measured at the venous anastomosis are an effective means of screening for AVG stenosis, AVG stenosis can occur early after AVG placement, and elevated VP and recirculation are late findings in AVG dysfunction.