The annexin lipocortin 1 is reported to mediate some anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids, but the mechanisms of this mediation are incompletely understood. The involvement of lipocortin 1 in glucocorticoid inhibition of monocyte interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release has been investigated. Treatment of peripheral blood monocytes with 2 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide potently increased IL–1β release (p = 0.001) and dexamethasone (10−7 M) significantly reduced both resting and stimulated IL-1β release (p = 0.009). A neutralizing monoclonal antibody to lipocortin 1 (0.5–50.0 μg/ml) was unable to inhibit this effect and recombinant lipocortin 1 (2 × 10−6 M) and 188aa lipocortin 1 fragment (10−8−10−6 M) had no effect. It is concluded that lipocortin 1 is not involved in the inhibition of monocyte IL-1β release by glucocorticoids.