The purpose of this study was to evaluate the orthopedic effects of reverse headgear therapy in children with skeletal Class III malocclusions. Data based on pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of seven boys and five girls, ages 4 through 14 years, were used. Comparison of the pretreatment and posttreatment cephalograms revealed a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in the SNA angle that indicated the maxilla was positioned farther forward after reverse headgear therapy. Both the maxillary and the mandibular effective lengths increased significantly from pretreatment to posttreatment, as did anterior and posterior total face height. These linear increases are most likely a reflection of growth rather than a direct result of the therapy. There was no significant change in the anteroposterior position of the mandible, although there was a tendency for the mandibular plane angle and the gonial angle to decrease. The results of this study indicate that maxillary protraction with a reverse headgear should be considered an alternative to orthognathic surgery in the treatment of children and adolescents with skeletal Class III malocclusion characterized by maxillary retrognathism.