The effect on the partition of erythrocytes in a two phase aqueous polymer system based on dextran T500 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 of a combination of immunoaffinity ligands, namely, rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) and PEG 1900-modified monoclonal IgG, was examined as a potential cell separation technique. Several hybridoma lines secreting mouse monoclonal IgG specific for the Fc receptor of rabbit IgG were raised. The monoclonal IgG was modified by cyanuric chloride attachment of PEG 1900, causing the modified antibody to partition predominantly into the PEG-rich upper phase of the systems. The PEG-modified monoclonal IgG was used as an affinity ligand in the two phase polymer system to specifically increase the partition of rabbit anti-NN glycophorin IgG. The rabbit IgG was applied together with the PEG-modified monoclonal IgG to increase the partition of human erythrocytes. The same system had no effect on the partition of rabbit erythrocytes. These experiments demonstrate that a monoclonal antibody can be modified and used as a general reagent with which to alter cell partition in two phase aqueous polymer systems in an immunologically specific manner.