Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the prospects of economic development of marine ecosystems. Improvement of the economic mechanism of marine natural resources management is understood as the development of control and regulation systems that would, on the one hand, increase the flexibility of the production sphere and its ability to develop and implement new nature conservation projects and, on the other hand, increase the efficiency of economic regulation levers. Economic regulation levers are the mechanisms of regulating commodity and monetary relationships. The chapter analyzes the problems in the improvement of the economic mechanism of marine natural resources management as an example of the management of marine ecosystems resources. Marine economic development should create favorable conditions for the establishment of reasonable demands on marine natural resources and the renewal and conservation of the latter, assuming simultaneous preservation of the ability of the aquatic environment to neutralize harmful waste. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the economic mechanism of marine natural resources management to preserve the balanced state of marine ecosystems involved in the production process. The estimation of the economic efficiency of marine natural resources management, including evaluation of the economic consequences of human impact and non-rational production of marine natural resources, is one of the most significant elements of the ecologonomic mechanism of marine natural resources management.