During angiogenesis and inflammatory processes, endothelial cells acquire different activation phenotypes, whose identification may help in understanding the complex network of angiogenic and inflammatory interactions in vivo . To this goal we investigated the expression of the human guanylate-binding protein (GBP)-1 that is highly induced by inflammatory cytokines (ICs) and, therefore, may characterize IC-activated cells. Using a new rat monoclonal antibody raised against GBP-1, we show that GBP-1 is a cytoplasmic protein and that its expression in endothelial cells is selectively induced by interferon-γ, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, or tumor necrosis factor-α, but not by other cytokines, chemokines, or growth factors. Moreover, we found that GBP-1 expression is highly associated with vascular endothelial cells as confirmed by the simultaneous detection of GBP-1 and the endothelial cell-associated marker CD31 in a broad range of human tissues. Notably, GBP-1 expression was undetectable in the skin, but it was highly induced in vessels of skin diseases with a high-inflammatory component including psoriasis, adverse drug reactions, and Kaposi's sarcoma. These results indicate that GBP-1 is a novel cellular activation marker that characterizes the IC-activated phenotype of endothelial cells.