Background & objectives: Entomological surveillance of the dengue vectors using pupal productivity as indicators can be helpful in effective management. On this basis, an assessment was made on the relative importance of the larval habitats of Aedes mosquitoes in Kolkata, an endemic zone for dengue in West Bengal, India. Methods: Monthly collection of larvae and pupae of Aedes from larval habitats categorized as earthen, plastic and porcelain containers and tyres, was carried out from selected sites. Pupal weight was recorded and degree of sexual dimorphism was calculated. The data on pupal weight, sexual dimorphism and immature density were used for regression analysis. Results: The number of positive sites for each type of larval habitats varied with months and mosquito species. Based on mean density per month, the plastic containers were the most productive habitats and the tyres were least productive for both Aedes species. The pupal weight of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus varied with the relative density and type of larval habitats. Significant differences in pupal productivity, positive sites and the proportion of pupae were observed in the habitats. Species-specific differences in the degree of dimorphism were noted with the females being larger in size than males, irrespective of the habitats. Interpretation & conclusions: Pupal productivity of Aedes mosquitoes in Kolkata differed in terms of the type of the larval habitats with the immature density affecting the body size of the adults. This habitat-based study is a pioneer effort considering Kolkata and calls for a management plan for source reduction of these habitats to minimize Aedes mosquitoes and thus potential risk of dengue.