Gastric metaplasia is one of the factors in duodenal ulcer appearance. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of gastric metaplasia and its connection with age, sex, cigarette smoking and H. pylori infection. In the study 216 patients were included. There were 98 patients with duodenal ulcer, 60 with duodenitis, and 58 healthy control subjects. There was no statistically significant difference in gastric metaplasia frequency according to age and sex. Gastric metaplasia was statistically more significant in patients with duodenal ulcer (p < 0.01). In all the subjects cigarette smoking did not significantly influence gastric metaplasia. In smokers with duodenal ulcer, and those who besides duodenal ulcer and smoking had H. pylori infection gastric metaplasia was more frequent (p < 0.01). However, in patients with duodenal ulcer, there was no statistically significant difference of gastric metaplasia related to H. pylori presence. It may be suggested that H. pylori infection is not of indispensable significance for gastric metaplasia appearance.