Abstract A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of thiamine and its phosphate esters in human erythrocytes, using postcolumn derivatization, is presented. The sample preparation and the choice of the analytical column avoid the use of an elution gradient. The four thiamine compounds (thiamine and thiamine monophosphate, diphosphate and triphosphate) are eluted within less than 15 min with a detection limit of ca. 20 fmol. The reproducibility and accuracy of the assay are satisfactory. Normal physiological red blood cell concentrations of the four thiamine compounds are included.