Repeat episodes of HPV-related external genital warts reflect recurring or new infections. No study before has been sufficiently powered to delineate how tobacco use, prior history of EGWs and HIV infection affect the risk for new EGWs. Behavioral, laboratory and examination data for 2,835 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants examined at 21,519 semi-annual visits were evaluated. Fourteen percent (391/2835) of men reported or were diagnosed with EGWs at 3% (675/21,519) of study visits. Multivariate analyses showed smoking, prior episodes of EGWs, HIV infection and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count among the infected, each differentially influenced the risk for new EGWs.