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Mass Loss from Red Giant Stars in Globular Clusters

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spectra6.eps Mass Loss from Red Giant Stars in Globular Clusters A PhD thesis By Szabolcs Me´sza´ros Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics University of Szeged Faculty of Natural Sciences and Informatics Thesis Advisor: Dr. Andrea K. Dupree Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Cambridge, USA Advisor: Dr. Jo´zsef Vinko´ Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics University of Szeged, Hungary PhD School in Physics University of Szeged, Hungary 2009 Contents 1 Introduction 5 1.1 Stellar Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2 Globular Clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.2.1 The Second Parameter Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.3 Mass Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.3.1 Direct Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.3.2 Spectroscopic Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.4 Models for Mass Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.5 Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2 Observations 17 2.1 Target Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.2 Data Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3 Line Statistics 24 3.1 Radial Velocity Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.1.1 M15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.1.2 M13 and M92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3.2 Determining the Hα Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.3 Emission on the CMD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.3.1 M15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.3.2 M13 and M92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.4

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