This volume offers a critical examination of current issues related to the religious roots of contemporary, i.e. post-1990 European identity, by analyzing the components of contemporary European identity, the presence of religion in the development of national identities, the manifestation of religious roots in secular society, and the role of religion in further European integration and social inclusion. The contributors adopt a multi and interdisciplinary approach to the theme, drawing on backgrounds in history, religious studies, sociology, cultural studies and international relations. Many of the essays were originally presented at a joint University of Cambridge Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities (CRASSH) and Centre for the Study of Jewish-Christian Relations conference in July 2006. Forward by EU Commissioner for Education, Training, Culture and Youth, Jan Figel'.