Abstract Human alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1PI) is a plasma protein with the function of protecting lung tissues from proteolytic destruction by enzymes from inflammatory cells. A1PI deficiency is an inherited disorder associated with pulmonary emphysema and a higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here we present the structural characterization of a recombinant form of human A1PI (Hu-recA1PI) expressed in the human PER.C6 cell line using an array of analytical and biochemical techniques. Hu-recA1PI had the same primary structure as plasma-derived A1PI (pd-A1PI) except reduced N-terminal heterogeneity. The secondary and tertiary structures were indistinguishable from pd-A1PI. Like pd-A1PI, Hu-recA1PI was modified by N-linked glycosylation on N46, N83, and N246. Unlike pd-A1PI, most glycans on recA1P1 were core fucosylated via α(1–6) linkage. In addition, significantly higher amounts of tri- and tetraantennary glycans were observed. These differences in glycosylation contributed to the apparent higher molecular weight and lower isoelectric point (pI) of Hu-recA1PI than pd-A1PI. Hu-recA1PI contained both α(2-3)- and α(2-6)-linked sialic acids and had very similar sialylation levels as pd-A1PI. Hu-recA1PI glycans were differentially distributed, with N46 containing mostly biantennary glycans, N83 containing primarily tri- and tetraantennary glycans, and N247 containing exclusively biantennary glycans.