Epidendrum puniceoluteum is an endemic orchid of Atlantic Rainforest, restricted to few populations only due to the destruction and fragmentation of its native habitat. Here, we report on the development of 10 microsatellite markers isolated from this orchid species. Genetic variability was characterized in two distant populations from Brazil coast. The number of alleles observed for each locus ranged from two to 12 and with an average of 6.4 alleles per locus. These microsatellites should be valuable tools for studying both fine-scale genetic structure of scattered E. puniceoluteum population and patterns will be useful genetic markers for other closely related taxa.