Abstract S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was purified from the livers of calves treated with methylglyoxal bis (guanylhydrazone) to elevate the level of the enzyme. Purified bovine S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase was similar in specific activity and subunit molecular weight (32 000) to the enzymes previously isolated from rat and mouse. The bovine liver enzyme immunologically crossreacted with S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from resting and mitogenically activated bovine lymphocytes. The rate of enzyme synthesis in activated lymphocytes was determined by labeling the cells with [ 3H]leucine and isolating the radioactive decarboxylase by affinity chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The rate of enzyme syntheis was increased 10-fold by 9 h after mitogen treatment, which accounts for the initial increase in cellular enzymatic. There was no further incraese in the rate of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase synthesis that correlated with a second elevation of activity occuring at approx. 24 h after mitogenic activation. It was concluded that the second increase in enzyme activity was due to lengthening the intracellular half-life of the enzyme by 2-fold.