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Metamorphism and crustal stacking in the North Indian Plate, North Pakistan

Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/0040-1951(89)90045-0
  • Earth Science


Abstract The northern part of the Indian Plate in North Pakistan is composed of a number of large-scale crustal nappes, each of which are stratigraphically distinct, and which were stacked late in the main phase of southeasterly directed thrusting associated with the Himalayan event. The major nappes recognised in the Swat to Kaghan area of North Pakistan are the Besham, Swat, Hazara, Banna, Lower Kaghan and Upper Kaghan nappes. Metamorphism was synchronous with early stages of deformation. Within each nappe the metamorphic grade increases upwards, an overall inversion that represents post-metamorphic imbrication within individual nappes, synchronous with the main phase of nappe stacking, rather than a “hot iron” type inversion as described under the MCT in Nepal and India. As a result of this “within-nappe” imbrication each thrust slice within any particular nappe contains rocks of a higher metamorphic grade than those in the slice below, with sharp metamorphic breaks across the imbricating thrusts as well as across the major shears that bound the crustal-scale nappes. Uplift along these imbricating thrusts initiated cooling of the stack. K-Ar mica and hornblende cooling ages imply that much of this uplift was completed by 30 Ma, or within 20 Ma of the collision.

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